Whether play centers on objects, fantasy and make-believe, or physical activity, researchers generally agree that eight features characterize ordinary play. Play (1) is pleasurable and enjoyable, (2) has no extrinsic goals, (3) is spontaneous, (4) involves active engagement, (5) is generally all-engrossing, (6) often has a private reality, (7) is nonliteral, and (8) can contain a certain element of make-believe.
Quote ID: 00217
Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, Roberta Golinkoff, Laura Berk, and Dorothy Singer
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