Multiple Intelligences

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Multiple Intelligences

Multiple Intelligences is a theory developed by Howard Gardner, and outlined in is 1983 book Frames of Mind.

The seven original Intelligences Gardner outlined are:

In his 1999 book, Intelligence Reframed, he added Naturalistic Intelligence to the list, suggested that Existential Intelligence might exist, and concluded Spiritual Intelligence does not.

For an overview of the first eight Intelligences, see this link:

You can also here about them from Gardner himself here:

While the theory of Multiple Intelligences is a very popular one in education circles, it is not without it’s critics. Many critics site the lack of a solid research base supporting the theory. You can dip your toe into the pond of criticism with these links:

Gardner’s works have also been misunderstood and misused. For example, educators looking for quick fixes and magic educational bullets have bent and twisted his work to the point that they assume an ‘Intelligence’ is the same as a ‘learning style’. Gardner speaks out about this here: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2013/10/16/howard-gardner-multiple-intelligences-are-not-learning-styles/?utm_term=.007052312e2b

Visual summary of Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

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